NEW SCIENCES FOR A NEW ERA:
Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of
Ruggero Maria Santilli
I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili
Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011);
PRINTED VERSION
I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili, New Sciences for a New Era:
Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of
Ruggero Maria Santilli,
Sankata Printing Press, University of Kathmandy, Nepal (2011),
Free pdf download
http://www.santillifoundation.org/docs/RMS.pdf
A view of Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli at age 72 taken in April 2007 by the Club Med in Martinique
PREFACE
By using a language accessible to the general scientific audience, this website is dedicated to an outline of the discoveries by the ItalianAmerican scientist Ruggero Maria Santilli ("Santilli" hereon) in mathematics, physics and chemistry with particular reference to their primary intended scope:
The conception, quantitative treatment, test and industrial realization of new, clean energies and fuels so much needed by mankind that are inconceivable with the mathematics, physics and chemistry of the 20th century.
During the outline, we shall also make available all original technical literature in free pdf downloads (since it is at times of difficult location, having been published in refereed Journals the world over).
Readers with a vast knowledge of preexisting mathematics, physics and chemistry, but no knowledge of Santilli's new disciplines, are suggested to provide primary attention to the overall view of the scientific edifice and are discouraged to pass vacuous judgments on individual papers since, as it is the case for individual pieces of a puzzle, they cannot possibly indicate the entire vista.
Interested researchers or historians are suggested to exercise caution in using preprints of various works that are still circulating in the scientific community, because Santilli has the habit of quickly writing papers, sending them to colleagues for comments and criticisms, and finalizing them only at the time of publication. In same cases, due to the vast nature of the scientific production and Santilli's multiple duties, unedited versions ended up being published, thus requiring erratacorrige.
For instance, all preprints Santilli uploaded in the electronic archive "arXiv" were draft used to solicit critical comments and are, at times, far from the final published versions. Hence, serious scholars should be aware of this occurrence, and verify the final character of the papers prior to expressing their views. In the event verifications of the final character of a given work is needed, scholars are suggested to contact "board(at)santillifoundation(dot)org".
Santilli's discoveries have been the subject of a large number of contributions by scientists around the world which we regret not to be able to review here to prevent a prohibitive length. For contributions by other authors, interested scholars may consult the 90 pages long
General Bibliography on Santilli Discoveries
Almost needless to say, a large amount of research remains to be done in all quantitative sciences. Such a research is available to interested scholars, of course, without obligation. In his characteristic style, Santilli has never solicited research by individual colleagues because, as written in his works, Lack of participation in basic advances is a gift of scientific priorities to others.
Copyright notice
To the best knowledge of the Board of Directors of the Foundation, the free download of all pdf files available in this web site is in compliance with current Copyright Laws, the Millennium Electronic Act, and other international agreements.
Santilli recorded over the years at the U. S. Library of Congress the Copyright of virtually all his works for protection against widespread plagiarisms and paternity frauds. The Foundation has secured a notarized agreement with Santilli for the free download of all such Copyrighted works. Additional agreements have been secured by the Foundation from Hadronic Press, Inc, International Academic Press, Kluwer, Naukova Dumka, and other publishers whose books have been made available in free download in this website. Similar written authorizations have been secured for the work of other authors. Inactive links provide full references while indicating that the Copyright authorization is currently missing, under way or under negotiation.
In the event of any possible error due to the number of publications herein made available to the scientific community at no charge, the Foundation requests a prompt notification for immediate corrections at the email "board(at)santillifoundation(dot)org".
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1.
INSUFFICIENCIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY THEORIES
1.1. THE LEGACY OF LAGRANGE AND HAMILTON.
1.2. INSUFFICIENCIES OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY
1.3. INSUFFICIENCIES OF GENERAL RELATIVITY
1.4. INSUFFICIENCIES OF EINSTEIN'S THEORIES FOR ANTIMATTER
1.5. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
1.6. INSUFFICIENCIES OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS
1.7. INSUFFICIENCIES OF PARTICLE PHYSICS
1.8. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUARKS AND NEUTRINOS CONJECTURES
1.9. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY
1.10. INSUFFICIENCIES OF BIOLOGY
1.11. INSUFFICIENCIES OF ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY
1.12. INTRODUCTORY READINGS
CHAPTER 2.
DISCOVERIES IN MATHEMATICS
2.1. FOREWORD
2.2. DISCOVERY OF NEW NUMBERS
2.2A. Discovery of isonumbers (1983)
2.2B. Discovery of genonumbers (1993)
2.2C. Discovery of hypernumbers (1994)
2.2D. Discovery of isodual numbers (1993)
2.3. DISCOVERY OF ISO, GENO, HYPERDIFFERENTIAL CALCULI, FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND THEIR ISODUALS (1996)
2.4. DISCOVERY OF ISO, GENO, HYPER, SPACES AND THEIR ISODUALS (1983).
2.5. DISCOVERY OF ISO, GENO, HYPERSYMPLECTIC GEOMETRIES AND THEIR ISODUALS (1996)
2.6. UNIFICATION OF MINKOWSKIAN AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRIES (1998)
2.7. ISOTOPIC COVERING OF LIE'S THEORY AND ITS ISODUAL (1978)
2.8. LIEADMISSIBLE COVERING OF THE LIEISOTOPIC THEORY AND ITS ISODUAL (1967)
2.9. INTEGRABILITY CONDITIONS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF A LAGRANGIAN
2.9A. Integrability conditions in Newtonian mechanics (1978).
2.9B. Integrability conditions in field theory (1975)
CHAPTER 3.
DISCOVERIES IN PHYSICS
3.1. FOREWORD
3.2. ETHER AS A UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM (19521955)
3.3. ORIGIN OF THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (19551957)
3.4. ORIGIN OF THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD (1974)
3.5. SYMMETRY OF THE ETHER (1970)
3.6. QFT (AND QCD) LIMITS FROM DISCRETE SYMMETRY VIOLATIONS (1974)
3.7. RESOLUTION OF THE HISTORICAL IMBALANCE ON ANTIMATTER (1994)
3.7A. Foreword
3.7B. NewtonSantilli isodual equation for antimatter
3.7C. Isodual representation of the Coulomb force
3.7D. HamiltonSantilli isodual mechanics
3.7E. Isodual special and general relativities
3.7F. Prediction of antigravity
3.7G. Test of antigravity
3.7H. Isodual quantum mechanics
3.7I. Experimental detection of antimatter galaxies
3.7J. The new isoselfdual invariance of Dirac's equation
3.7K. DunningDavies thermodynamics for antimatter
3.7L. Isoselfdual spacetime machine
3.7M. Original literature
3.8. INITIATION OF qDEFORMATIONS OF LIE THEORY
3.9. THEOREMS OF CATASTROPHIC INCONSISTENCIES OF
NONCANONICAL AND NONUNITARY THEORIES
3.9A. The majestic consistency of Hamiltonian theories.
3.9B. Theorems of catastrophic inconsistencies of noncanonical and nonunitary theories.
3.9C. Examples of catastrophically inconsistent theories.
3.10. SANTILLI RELATIVITIES (1978)
3.10A. Historical notes
3.10B. Santilli's opening statement
3.10C. Conceptual foundations
3.10D. Mathematical foundations
3.10E. Invariance and universality of Santilli's isotopies.
3.10F. LorentzPoincare'Santilli isosymmetry and its isodual
3.10G. Santilli's isorelativity and its isodual
3.10H. Santilli's isogravitation and its isodual
3.10I. Santilli's geno and hyperrelativities and their isoduals
3.10J. Isotopic reconstruction of exact spacetime symmetries when conventionally broken
3.10K. Experimental verifications
3.10L. Original literature
3.11. HADRONIC MECHANICS (1967)
3.11A. Foreword
3.11B. Historical notes
3.11C. Interior and exterior dynamical systems
3.11D. Closed and open dynamical systems
3.11E. NewtonSantilli isoequations
3.11F. HamiltonSantilli isomechanics
3.11G. AnimaluSantilli isoquantization
3.11H. HilbertSantilli isospaces
3.11I. SchroedingerSantilli isoequations
3.11J. HeisenbergSantilli isoequations
3.11K. Elimination of quantum divergencies
3.11L. Genotopic and hyperstructural branches of hadronic mechanics
3.11M. Isodual branches of hadronic mechanics
3.11N. Twobody hadronic system
3.11O. Simple construction of hadronic mechanics
3.11P. Invariance of hadronic mechanics
3.11Q. Relativistic hadronic mechanics
3.11R. Direct universality and uniqueness of hadronic mechanics
3.11S. EPR completion of quantum mechanics, hidden variables and all that
3.11T. Operator isogravity
3.11U. Isograndunification
CHAPTER 4.
DISCOVERIES IN CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.1A. Lack of exact character of quantum mechanics for the hydrogen molecule (1978)
4.1B. Insufficiencies of the quantum chemical notion of valence (1978)
4.1C. Insufficiencies of screened Coulomb potentials (1978))
4.1D. Classification of hadronic chemistry (2000)
4.1E. Basic literature
4.2. HADRONIC CHEMISTRY
4.2A. AnimaluSantilli Cooper pair (1995)
4.2B. SantilliShillady strong valence bond (1999)
4.2C.The isoelectronium (1999)
4.2D. The hydrogen molecule (1999)
4.2E. The water molecule (2000)
4.3. THE NEW CHEMICAL SPECIES OF SANTILLI MAGNECULES
4.3A. Historical notes
4.3B. Conception of Santilli magnecules (1998)
4.3C. Detection of Santilli magnecules (1998)
4.3D. Magnecular structure of H_{3} and O_{3} (1998)
4.3E. Magnecular structure of liquids and solids (1998)
4.4 INDUSTRIAL REALIZATION OF FUELS WITH MAGNECULAR STRUCTURE
4.4A. Catastrophic forecasts facing mankind
4.4B. Santilli hadronic reactors (1998)
4.4C. Industrial realization of MagneGas fuel (1998)
4.4D. Industrial realization of the HHO fuel (2006)
4.4E. Industrial realization of MagneHydrogen fuel (2003)
4.4F. Molecular and magnecular combustions (1998).
4.5. SANTILLI DISCOVERY IN BIOLOGY
4.5A. Historical notes
4.5B. Deformability, irreversibility, and multivaluedness of
biological structures.
4.5C. Representation of biological structures via Santilli's
deformable, irreversible and multivalued hypermathematics
4.5D. Hypermolecules, hypermagnecules and hyperliquids
4.5E. Deciphering the DNA code?
4.5F. Understanding the DNA structure?
4.5G. A future new cure for cancer?
4.5H. Cloonan's advances in Santilli Magnecules
CHAPTER 5.
EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN CLASSICAL PHYSICS, PARTICLE PHYSICS, NUCLEAR PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, ASTROPHYSICS, ANTIMATTER AND COSMOLOGY
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.1A. The unreassuring conditions of 20th century particle physics
5.1B. Mutation of particles in interior conditions
5.1C. Mutation of spacetime caused by physical media
5.2. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN PARTICLE PHYSICS
5.2A. Experimental verification of the mutation of magnetic moments.
5.2B. Experimental verification with the meanlives of unstable hadrons
5.2C. Experimental verifications with arbitrary local causal speeds
5.2D. Experimental verification via the BoseEinstein correlation
5.2E. Characterization of hadronic media
5.3. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS.
5.3A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century nuclear physics.
5.3B. Experimentyal verification with nuclear magnetic moments.
5.3C. Experimental verifications with the nuclear force
5.4. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN CHEMISTRY AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
5.4A. Experimental verifications in chemistry
5.4B. The unreassuring condition of 20th century superconductivity
5.4C. Animalu's isosuperconductivity
5.4D. Experimental verification of Animalu's isosuperconductivity
5.4E. Initial basic laws of hadronic mechanics
5.5. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION WITH THE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT
5.5A. The inevitability of the ether as a universal medium
5.5B. Experimental verification with light propagating in water.
5.5C. Santilli isoredshift
5.5D. Experimental confirmation of Santilli isoredshift
5.5E. Experimental verification with the colors our atmosphere
5.6. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS IN ASTROPHYSICS
5.6A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century astrophysics and cosmology.
5.6B. Absence of universe expansion
5.6C. Absence of "dark matter"
5.6D. Absence of "dark energy"
5.6E. Experimental verification with quasar redshifts
5.7. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION WITH ANTIMATTER AND COSMOLOGY
5.7A. The unreassuring condition of 20th century antimatter
5.7B. Experimental verification of Santilli's isodual theory of antimatter
5,7C. Santilli's iso, geno, and hypercosmologies.
5. Appendix 5.7A: NewtonSantilli universal gravitation
CHAPTER 6:
REDUCTION OF MATTER TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
6.1. INTRODUCTION
6.1A. Foreword
6.1B. Santilli's recollections on the birth of hadronic mechanics
6.1C. New structure model of unstable hadrons and leptons
6.1D. Inapplicability of quantum mechanics to the structure of hadrons
6.1E. The dichotomy: classification vs structure of hadrons and leptons.
6.2. REDUCTION OF MESONS AND LEPTONS TO ELECTRONS AND POSITRONS
6.2A. Conception of the π^{o} structure
6.2B. Structure equation of the π^{o}
6.2C. Solution of the π^{o} structure equation.
6.2D. Structure model of unstable leptons and of the remaining mesons.
6.2E. Revisions due to the isodual theory of antimatter
6.2F. Compatibility of the new structure model of hadrons with unitary classifications
6.2G. Experimental verifications
6.3. REDUCTION OF BARYONS TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS
6.3A. Conception of the neutron structure
6.3B. Nonrelativistic exact representation of the neutron rest energy, mean life and charge radius
6.3C. Nonrelativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron spin.
6.3D. Nonrelativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron magnetic moment
6.3E. Foudations of the relativistic treatment
6.3F. Relativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron rest energy, meanlife and charge radius
6.3G. Relativistic, exact and invariant representation of the neutron spin.
6.3H. Relativistic, exact representation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron.
6.3I. Santilli's etherino vs Fermi's neutrino.
6.3J. Structure model of the remaining baryons with physical constituents
6.3K. Compatibility of baryon syntheses with the SU(3) classification.
6.4. LABORATORY SYNTHESIS OF NEUTRONS FROM A HYDROGEN GAS
6.4A. Introduction
6.4B. Don Borghi experiment on the synthesis of neutrons from an hydrogen gas
6.4C. Santilli experiment on the synthesis of neutrons from a hydrogen gas
6.4D. The Don BorghiSantilli neutroids
6.4E. Interpretation of Don Borghi and Santilli experiments
6.4F. Santilli's prediction of a new class of nucleides.
6.4G. Requirements for the rerun of Santilli's experiments
6.5. REDUCTION OF NUCLEI TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.
6.5A. Introduction.
6.5B. Santilli's contributions in nuclear physics.<
6.5C. Review of basic nuclear contributions.
6.5D. Review of Lieisotopic nuclear contributions.
6.5E. Review of Lieadmissible nuclear contributions.
6.5F. Reduction of the deuterium to two protons and one electron.
6.5Fa. Foreword.
6.5Fb. Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the deuterium structure.
6/5Fc. Conception of the deuteron structure.
6.5Fd. Representation of the stability of the deuterium.
6.5Fe. representation of the deuterium size.
6.5Ff. Representation of the deuterium charge.
6.5Fg. Representation of the deuterium Spin.
6.5Fh. Representation of the deuterium magnetic moment.
6.5Fi. Representation of the deuterium force.
6.5j. Representation of the deuterium total energy.
6.5Fk. Representation of the deuterium, electric dipole moment and parity.
6.6. REDUCTION OF MATTER TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.
6.7. REDUCTION OF NEUTRON STARS TO PROTONS AND ELECTRONS.
CHAPTER 7:
NEW CLEAN ENERGIES FOR A NEW ERA
7.1. INTRODUCTION
7.2. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF ATOMIC TYPE
7.2A. Limitations of 20th century doctrines for energy releasing processes
7.2B. Conventional molecular combustion
7.2C. Santilli's magnecular combustion
7.3. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF NUCLEAR TYPE
7.3A. Foreword
7.3B. Insufficiencies of "cold" and "hot" fusions
7.3C. Santilli's main idea for new controlled fusions
7.3D. Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and special relativity for controlled fusions
7.3E. Insufficiencies of quark and neutrino conjectures for controlled nuclear fusions
7.3F. Basic assumptions of intermediate controlled nuclear fusions
7.3G. Physical laws of controlled nuclear fusions
7.3H. The role of Santilli magnecules for controlled nuclear fusions
7.3I. Engineering conception and realization of hadronic refineries
7.3J. The physics of intermediate controlled nuclear fusions
7.3K. Engineering conception of hadronic reactors
7.3L. Experimental verification of nitrogen synthesis without harmful radiations or waste
7.3M. Independent verification of Santilli's nitrogen synthesis without harmful radiation or waste
7.4. NEW HADRONIC ENERGIES OF PARTICLE TYPE.
7.4A. Introduction
7.4B. The stimulated decay of the neutron
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7.4C. Neutron stimulated decay via photons with resonating frequency
7.4D. Hadronic energy of particle type
7.4E. Hadronic Energies via double beta decays
7.4F. Tsagas experiment on the Stimulated Neutron Decay
7.4G. Recycling of radioactive nuclear waste via their stimulated decay
7.5. EPILOGUE
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